Bloodsports or bloodplay are general terms used for any sexual or BDSM play involving blood. It is considered edgeplay due to its nature of being able to easily spread blood borne diseases. It is also possible, although rare, for the uncareful to cut the person too deeply and cause them to bleed excessively.
There is also menstrual fetish (mensophilia), which focuses on menstruating women, either having their periods without blocking the flow of blood, or even focusing on used tampons. Some enjoy performing cunnilingus on their menstruating partners. The same can be said for the female; the genital area is often more arousable during menstration and orgasms can be more intense.
A blood fetish (also known as vampire fetish, hematolagnia and haematophilia) is a sexual fetish for human blood. Blood fetishists are most often aroused by blood on nude or semi-nude individuals (or indeed their sexual partner). Other blood fetishists are aroused simply by the sight of blood. Witnessing accidental or intentional cuts or blood donating are good examples. Only extreme cases are turned on while viewing an extremely gruesome scene. Blood fetishism is often accompanied by some licking or drinking blood through bloodletting. This is sometimes done by biting (referred to as "love-bites" though they are technically not) however this is not the norm due to the potential for damage from bruising or infection. Most often a razor blade is used. As well as being a sexual fetish, it is often considered an expression of intimacy or bonding.
There is a substantial community centered around the fetish, however it is mostly "underground" due to its controversial nature. It is partly linked with the vampire subculture, however most blood fetishists do not consider themselves "vampires", though some may have a vampire fetish - blood fetishism has a history of being referred to as "vampirism" in psychiatric literature and articles.
The vampire subculture describes a contemporary subculture marked by an obsessive fascination with, and emulation of, contemporary vampire lore, including everything from fashion and music to, in the more extreme cases, the actual exchange of blood. Members of the subculture ("vampirists") often prefer the spelling "vampyre" to distinguish themselves from the "fictional" vampire while simultaneously lending a pseudo-Victorian flair to their activities. These contemporary consumers of blood typically appeal to myths about vampires for legitimacy.
The subculture is typically delineated by a particular style of dress and decor that combines elements of the Victorian, Punk, Glam and Gothic fashions with styles featured in vampire films and fiction. Although often associated with the Goth subculture, most goths do not enjoy the association with the negative stereotype portrayed in the media and, as a result, actively dislike members of the vampire subculture. Although this subculture is most popular in the United States of America, it has members throughout Europe and eastern Asia.
Most modern practitioners of vampirism do not believe themselves to be undead creatures; rather, they use vampirism as a means of practicing magic(k). For example, they claim that they are taking life energy or qi from another (usually a willing donor who also practices vampirism) to increase their own energy and vitality. Vampirists do not necessarily obtain this energy from blood, but will use other physical, spiritual or psychic means to obtain this energy (for example, there are self-styled "sexual vampires" and "psychic vampires").
A number of these vampires not only practice the drinking of blood but actually believe themselves to be the vampires of legend, or some other supernatural entity (for example, a "lost race" of Homo sapiens); see otherkin for further discussion of this type of phenomenon. Self-styled vampires of this sort will often claim that their own personal physical or psychological characteristics, such as pale skin, sensitive night vision, quick reflexes, emotional irritability and instability, and any number of self-professed psychic abilities are direct results of vampirism rather than independent or imagined traits. Many outside this group see this as a result of a mental illness such as disassociative identity disorder, schizophrenia, or antisocial personality disorder. A few vampiric groups have been likened to cults, and a few self-proclaimed vampires have murdered in order to drink human blood, such as Brisbane's notorious "lesbian vampire murderer" Tracey Wigginton.
It should be noted that consumption of human blood exposes both parties involved to a range of high-risk blood-borne pathogens and diseases.